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A new documentary from the founders of BitcoinCash. Site on cryptocurrency Bitcoin Cash has been released, which explains the technology, use cases and future of the sometimes controversial P2P currency in Having emerged from the uncertainty surrounding developer cryptocurrency documentary channel, many developers, analysts and supporters believe Bitcoin Cash is headed for a breakout year in Although BCH has no official roadmap, the collection of development teams remain committed to the original vision of an open, permissionless payment network, as well as the fundamental characteristics of supply, emissions, mining algorithm and low fees that distinguish BCH from its rivals. The documentary details a raft of improvements for the coming year, from Scalenet, which is already producing MB blocks, to double-spend proofs, which are already being adopted by wallets and nodes, and are expected to radically increase zero-conf security on Bitcoin Cash.

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The picture toured the British Isles and hundreds of thousands flocked to pay a shilling to view it. One of these was James Robinson, who saw the painting when it was in Dublin. Within days of its publication, legal procedures began, claiming his picture threatened the income of the printmaker who had the lucrative copyright to publish engravings of the painting. The ensuing court battles were the first notorious copyright cases. The stereograph represented a young man in 18th-century costume on a bed.

The backdrop was painted, but the chest, discarded coat and candle were real. Stereographic techniques of arranging real figures in compositions that were at once carefully composed and naturally spontaneous were particularly pertinent to Pre-Raphaelite painters, who observed and used friends and acquaintances as models in inventive and expressive new poses.

They interact casually around a card table, and one regards us directly, but they are at the same time artfully positioned equally close the picture plane. This created a natural effect while keeping them the same length from the camera to avoid the distortions that a lens gives to near objects at different distances. He might have incorporated its informal effect to challenge accusations that had recently appeared in the press that he could not represent modern beauties in contemporary fashion.

Presented by the Trustees of the Chantrey Bequest In its style, which recalls the works of the eighteenth-century painter Sir Joshua Reynolds, and in its flattering depiction of the fashionable sitters, this picture expresses a gentle and nostalgic vision of family life. Mary holds most of the trumps and looks towards the viewer.

Delicately, the card game hints at sisterly competition in husband-finding. William Powell Frith Dolly Varden c. Bequeathed by Mrs E. Thwaites Its action is set in the London of the s. The problems and possibilities of realism were fundamental to 19th-century science and literature as well as the arts. It underpinned the dialogue between painters and stereographers. Even painted subjects from history and literature represented by stereographers appear to have been chosen for their familiar, everyday aspects.

It drew on the popularity of the author and book, and was intended to reach a similarly broad audience in the form of engraved prints. William Collins Happy as a King replica c. Presented by Robert Vernon This is the first display in a major British art gallery devoted to the nineteenth-century craze of three-dimensional photography, known as stereographs, and open up this neglected area of British art. In the s and s pioneer photographers staged real men, women and children in tableaux based on famous paintings of the day, in order to bring them to life as three-dimensional scenes.

Stereographs comprise two photographs of the same scene taken from fractionally different viewpoints. When these are mounted side by side and viewed through a stereoscope, the viewer sees just one three-dimensional image. Stereographs were inexpensive, and in the s and s they circulated world-wide in their tens of thousands. The photographs were regarded by many as fairly disposable, making them hard to track down today.

The display introduces important figures in stereoscopic photography such as Alexis Gaudin and Michael Burr, and shows how some of their innovations also inspired painters. In this unique display they can be viewed in their full 3-D splendour alongside the beautiful Victorian narrative paintings to which they relate.

We are delighted to be collaborating with Dr Brian May, who has built this collection over 40 years, and with Denis Pellerin, who has researched the connections. Presented by Sir Henry Tate A woman carrying a sleeping child comforts her wounded husband, a defeated rebel, while handing an order for his release to a gaoler.

Shortly afterwards, Gaudin made a stereograph, the rare surviving examples of which bear no title, which posed a young woman, child and two men in the same attitudes Untitled, after Millais, The Order of Release , c. His image combined a backdrop painted in the conventional way behind the figures with real furniture and a door jutting out in front. Such round and rectangular geometric objects became common in stereographs because they created clear three-dimensional shapes.

Like Millais, Gaudin used real models. They express the sternness, despair and stoicism of the gaoler, soldier and wife. The dog is probably an example of taxidermy as a real one is unlikely to have stayed still while the photograph, which would have been exposed over several seconds, was taken.

Unlike painting, stereographs exclude things outside the frame. When the eyes come close to the stereoscope lenses and manage to bring the image into focus they experience the sudden sensation of being in the picture. Even the tiny scale of the scenes imitates the scale at which distant objects are experienced in life to get a sense of this, look at a person on the other side of the room and holding your hand near your eye line up your forefinger with their head and your thumb with their feet.

The painter created an enclosed feeling for the viewer with a claustrophobic shadowy shallow space. Stereography was a new art. Bequeathed by Jacob Bell When The Derby Day was first exhibited at the Royal Academy in , it proved so popular that a rail had to be put up to keep back the crowds. It presents a panorama of modern Victorian life, a previously unknown genre which Frith largely created in his earlier work, Life at the Seaside, Ramsgate Sands of Royal Collection.

He worked on the project for fifteen months, producing two large sketches in addition to the finished work. He brought the composition together with the aid of drawings and sketches, hiring models to pose for all the main figures. He asked a real jockey called Bundy to pose on a hobbyhorse in his studio for the riders on the right of the picture, and also hired an acrobat and his son, whom he saw performing in a pantomime in Drury Lane.

For the remaining figures he called on family and friends, as well as a string of young women sent by Jacob Bell. Despite a remarkable feat of organisation, the picture remains fairly static, and the figures are more interesting when examined individually.

There are three main incidents taking place in the picture. He is tempting the rustic-looking man in a smock, whose wife is trying to restrain him. On the right of this group, another man, with his hands in his pockets, has had his gold watch stolen by the man behind. In the centre of the picture we see the acrobat and his son, who looks longingly over at a sumptuous picnic being laid out by a footman.

Behind them are carriages filled with race-goers, including a courtesan on the far right, who is the kept mistress of the foppish-looking character leaning against the carriage. The courtesan is balanced on the far left of the picture by the woman in a dark riding habit, one of a number of high-class prostitutes who daily paraded on horseback in Hyde Park. The relationship between photography and painting went two ways.

In the mid s, Frith began to use photographs to help him paint elaborate and up-to-date scenes on a very large scale. It caused a sensation. This narrative momentum was complemented by motion within the pictures. Further movement is contributed by the people. In each, Silvester orchestrated incessant activity in poses which betray no hint that they were held for several seconds. Her child and others look on while an older gentleman whose covered nose suggests he may be suffering from syphilis shows his disapproval.

Bequeathed by Miss J. Blaker The painting of modern-life subjects was popularised during the s by such artists as William Frith Artists deliberately chose subjects such as racetracks, seaside resorts and busy streets where all classes of society could be represented in the one picture.

The omnibus — a horse-drawn carriage that picked up and deposited people along an established route — was introduced into London on 4 July and quickly became a popular mode of transport. Purgini in Victorian Days and Ways , London Egley painted the scene as if glimpsed through a window and attempted to convey the claustrophobic and cramped conditions that the passengers were forced to endure.

The subject permitted him to portray every class of society, from an old country woman, perhaps a family servant, with her piles of baggage, to the city clerk with his cane. The old woman stares sympathetically towards the young mother and her children, who avert their gazes, in a gesture of gentility. Similarly, a series by James Elliott ? Lot numbers have been attached to the furniture and in the background a servant, who has also lost her home, weeps.

Martineau adopted a photographic composition, figures enclosed within a room cluttered with clues to both narrative and depth. A stereograph-style view into another space shows men assessing possessions. Lot numbers are attached to the furniture. Another horse image suggests gambling. Presented by E. Martineau Tate Britain website. A bumper posting on a fascinating subject. People stare into the camera with no idea of the maelstrom about to descend….

Many thankx to Foam for allowing me to publish the text and photographs in the posting. The title refers to the primrose flower, used metaphorically here to represent the many colours in which it appears during early spring. Primrose — Russian Colour Photography presents a retrospective of the various attempts in Russia to produce coloured photographic images. This process began in the early s, almost simultaneously with the discovery of the new medium itself.

The use of colour in Russia stems from the early s and practically coincides with the invention of the medium itself. The term colour photography is slightly disingenuous, since at first it referred to a toning technique in which black and white photographs were painted by hand. Traditionally this technique was used by specialised tradesmen who added colour to the photographs according to certain methods and within the contours of the image.

This technique became so popular that it started a trend in and of itself and to a large extent determined the appearance and aesthetics of colour photography in Russia. Initially used especially for portraits, Pictorialist landscapes and nudes, it later also found favour with avant-garde artists. Interestingly enough these aesthetics also formed the starting point for Soviet propaganda and for portraits, political leaders and reportage.

Primrose — Russian Colour Photography can be viewed as a journey through various techniques and genres, meanings and messages, mass practices and individual experiments. But is also shows unique photos of Alexander Rodchenko and Varvara Stephanova, and recent works from the famous Luriki series by Boris Mikhailov, in which he mocked the visual culture of the Soviet propaganda.

Rodchenko — V. This exhibition with the metaphorical title Primrose demonstrates the appearance and development of colour in Russian photography from the s to s, and at the same time reveals the history of Russia in photography. With examples of works from classics of Russian photography such as P. Pavlov, K. Bergamasko, A. Eikhenvald, A. Rodchenko, V. Mikoshi, G. Petrusov, D. Baltermants and B. Mikhailov, as well as unknown photographers, we can see how life in Russia changed in the course of a century as it endured historical and socio-political catastrophes, also the diverse roles that photography played during this period.

Colour became widespread in Russian photography at approximately the same time as in Europe — in the s. This was dependent on the manual tinting of photographic prints with watercolour and oil paints, either by the photographers themselves or by artists working with them. Above all this applies to solo or family portraits commissioned as a keepsake. People were eager to see their own image in colour, and moreover in a picturesque form.

The colouring of early photographic shots could also hide imperfections in the prints, including those introduced on albumenised paper. With time this paper turned yellow. To conceal this, the paper was tinted green, pink and other colours and coloured with watercolours, gouache, oils, or later aniline dyes. Sometimes the photograph was partially redrawn during the process of tinting, and foliate embellishments or different items of interior decoration appeared in the background.

By the end of the 19th century, by the s and s, colour photography was extended to architectural, landscape and industrial subject matter. For instance, the photographic studio of the Trinity and St. Sergius Monastery photographic studios attached to Russian monasteries became a very common phenomenon produced numerous coloured architectural images of Orthodox churches. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Russia was on the one hand undergoing active europeanisation, as reflected in the style of architectural structures, interiors, costume and way of life, but meanwhile there was also a search for national identity, and new interest in the national particularities of inhabitants in the Russian Empire.

Entire series of tinted photographs appeared, depicting people in national costumes — Russian, Tatar, Caucasian, Ukrainian, and so on. In the early 20th century, in the s, coloured photographs of Russian military officers, an important social class before the outbreak of the First World War, were particularly popular.

The photographic documentation of life in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century acquired the status of a State objective, largely because Tsar Nicholas II and his family were enthusiastic amateur photographers. Autochromes , colour transparencies on a glass backing, were first produced on an industrial scale in Granules of potato starch tinted red, yellow and blue were applied to a glass plate.

The granules worked as colour filters. Addition of a second layer of granules provided orange, violet and green hues. After that a light-sensitive emulsion was applied. The plate was exposed and developed. However, what was at first sight very private and personal photography later provided an excellent description of the typical lifestyle enjoyed by educated Russian noblemen in the early 20th century.

The onset of the First World War in and October Revolution in annihilated the Russia whose memory is preserved in the tinted photographs and autochromes of the second half of the 19th to early 20th centuries. At first there was emphasis on photo reportage, but very soon it became clear real change in a country where hunger and devastation ruled after the Revolution and Civil War was as insubstantial as the utopian dreams of ardent revolutionaries.

From the mids photomontage was widespread in the Soviet Union, enthusiastically encouraged by the Bolsheviks. Photomontage allowed for a combination of documentary veracity and the new Soviet myths. In the s it was practised by such highly talented modernists as A. Rodchenko, G. Klutsis, El Lissitzky, V. Stepanova and others. From the mids A. Rodchenko regenerated the forgotten technique of hand colouring his own photographs. Rodchenko began photographing classical ballet and opera, using the arsenal of his aesthetic opponents, the Russian pictorialists , who by that time were subject to even harsher repression in the Soviet Union than modernist photographers.

For Alexander Rodchenko soft focus, classical subject matter and toning typical of pictorial photography were a mediated way of expressing his internal escapism and tragic disillusionment with the Soviet utopia.

In general rules for socialist realism were published in the USSR, as the only creative method for all forms of art, including photographic. Soviet art had to reflect Soviet myths about the happiest people in the happiest country, not real life and real people.

On this Procrustean bed it was hard not only for modernism with its constructivist aesthetics, but even pictorialism, to fit into the aesthetics of Socialist realism. Pictorialism was one of the most important tendencies of early 20th-century Russian photography, and Russian pictorialist photographers were awarded gold and silver medals at international exhibitions.

Pictorial photography differed not only by the method of shooting and complex printing techniques intended to bring photography closer to painting, but also by the selection of traditional themes. Romantic landscapes and architectural ruins or nude studies were from the point of view of socialist realism dangerous remnants from the past. Those who remained at liberty — for example, Vasily Ulitin, a participant in major international photo exhibitions and recipient of medals and diplomas in Paris, London, Berlin, Los Angeles, Toronto, Tokyo and Rome — tried with difficulty to adapt to the new reality and attempted to depict revolutionary subjects Flames of Paris, Red Army Soldier , thereby gaining indulgence and the right to work from the Bolsheviks.

Almost simultaneously, in the German company Agfa and American company Kodak introduced colour film. Broad distribution and introduction to the amateur photography market were delayed by the outbreak of the Second World War. In the USSR colour photography only appeared at the end of the war. From that year onwards Ivan Shagin and several other photographers began to relay their colour news chronicle to the country.

Before colour photographs of Soviet Russia were made only in isolated cases, on German or American film. Until the mids, in the USSR negative film for printing colour photographs was a luxury only available to a few official photographers who worked for major Soviet publications. It was used by such classics of Soviet photography as V. Mikosha, G. Baltermants, V. Tarasevich, and others. All of them were in one way or another obliged to follow the canons of socialist realism and practise staged reportage.

In those days even still life studies of fruit bore an ideological message, being photographed for cookery books in which the Soviet people could see produce that remained absent in a hungry postwar country, where the ration-card system of food distribution was still functioning Ivan Shagin, Lemons and Fruit,

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Tianjin Airlines. Tiger Airways. Transaero Airlines. Turkish Airlines. United Airlines. Vietnam Airlines. Virgin America. Virgin Atlantic. Virgin Australia. Vueling Airlines. Airlines Fleet Map. This website uses cookies and local storage. The influential families generally bore some Indian blood and provided most of the leaders of the bandeiras, with a few notable exceptions such as Antonio Raposo Tavares , who was European born.

According to some historians, Portuguese settlers in Brazil used to prefer to marry Portuguese-born females. If not possible, the second option were Brazilian-born females of recent Portuguese background. The third option were Brazilian-born women of distant Portuguese ancestry. However, the number of White females in Brazil was very low during the Colonial period, causing a large number of interracial relationships in the country.

Probably, the most famous case was Chica da Silva, a mixed-race Brazilian slave who married a rich gold mine owner and became one of the richest people in Brazil. In , their number was shown to be much smaller according to the census of that time, outnumbered by pardos and Whites. People of Black African and Native Brazilian ancestry are known as Cafuzos and are historically the less numerous group.

Most of them have origin in black women who escaped slavery and were welcomed by indigenous communities, where started families with local amerindian men. Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of a maid holding an embroidered cloth] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print, hand-painted.

Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of wet nurse with infant] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print, hand-painted. At the time of European contact, some of the indigenous people were traditionally mostly semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. Many of the estimated 2, nations and tribes which existed in the 16th century suffered extinction as a consequence of the European settlement, and many were assimilated into the Brazilian population.

The indigenous population was largely killed by European diseases, declining from a pre-Columbian high of millions to some , , grouped into tribes. However, the number could be much higher if the urban indigenous populations are counted in all the Brazilian cities today. A somewhat dated linguistic survey found living indigenous languages with , total speakers.

The s brought trade and wealth to the Amazon. The process for vulcanizing rubber was developed, and worldwide demand for the product skyrocketed. The best rubber trees in the world grew in the Amazon, and thousands of rubber tappers began to work the plantations. When the Indians proved to be a difficult labor force, peasants from surrounding areas were brought into the region.

In a dynamic that continues to this day, the indigenous population was at constant odds with the peasants, who the Indians felt had invaded their lands in search of treasure. The urban rights movement is a recent development in the rights of indigenous peoples. Brazil has one of the highest income inequalities in the world, and much of that population includes indigenous tribes migrating toward urban areas both by choice and by displacement. Beyond the urban rights movement, studies have shown that the suicide risk among the indigenous population is 8.

Many indigenous rights movements have been created through the meeting of many indigenous tribes in urban areas. Indigenous populations also living in urban areas have struggles regarding work. They are pressured into doing cheap labor. Programs like Oxfam have been used to help indigenous people gain partnerships to begin grassroots movements.

Some of their projects overlap with environmental activism as well. Many Brazilian youths are mobilising through the increased social contact, since some indigenous tribes stay isolated while others adapt to the change. Access to education also affects these youths, and therefore, more groups are mobilising to fight for indigenous rights.

Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of Indigenous Brazilian tradeswoman] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print. Hermann Kummler compiler [Native Brazilian lady-in-waiting and young child attend to a veiled aristocrat] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print.

Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of Brazilian woman servant and child] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print. Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of a young Brazilian woman] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print. Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of a Brazilian woman] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print. Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of a Brazilian woman with two children] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print.

Hermann Kummler compiler [Portrait of a Brazilian mother and child] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print. Hermann Kummler compiler [Mistress punishing a native child] From Ethnographic portraits of indigenous women of Pernambuco and Bahia Salt paper print.

To me, they are an early form of VR. You bring a machine to your eyes, focus and wham, your in another world — just like wearing an enveloping VR headset. Here are the Pyramids, or the Venice canals, right in front of you. The pictures separate fore, mid and background so there is real depth to the tableaux, like sitting in an iMax cinema and watching old New York come to life.

The photographs seem to reach out to you, not just the scene being brought to life, but the transcendence of time as well. This is how these things looked all those years ago in Technicolor 3D. In this exhibition we see that, not only did photographers copy famous paintings, but new innovation and mis en scene techniques in photography also inspired painters. The actuality and presence of figures and contexts. This is why this form of photography retains its undoubted fascination.

My apologies for some of the small images in the posting, that was all I could get! Pioneers of the art form were quick to challenge fine art itself. Our mind combines these two views to perceive depth. Nearly years later, in London, the Victorian scientist Charles Wheatstone took up the challenge. William Fox Talbot announced his technique of print photography a few months later and soon photographs were being taken in pairs for this purpose.

Within a decade special cameras and viewers were invented; stereoscopes and stereographs were soon available worldwide. The two eyes see different pictures of the same thing, for the obvious reason that they look from points two or three inches apart. By means of these two different views of an object, the mind, as it were, feels round it and gets an idea of its solidity.

Stereographs sold for a few shillings and people of all classes collected them for education and for pleasure. Small hand-held stereoscopes allowed them to gaze on faraway countries, mechanical inventions, comic incidents, beauty spots, zoological or botanical specimens or celebrity weddings, in the comfort of their homes.

Again, the tale of the suicide of the poor poet, Thomas Chatterton, exposed as a fraud for faking medieval histories and poems to get by, had broad appeal. Chatterton was also an 18th-century figure, but Wallis set his picture in a bare attic overlooking the City of London which evoked the urban poverty of his own age. The picture toured the British Isles and hundreds of thousands flocked to pay a shilling to view it. One of these was James Robinson, who saw the painting when it was in Dublin.

Within days of its publication, legal procedures began, claiming his picture threatened the income of the printmaker who had the lucrative copyright to publish engravings of the painting. The ensuing court battles were the first notorious copyright cases. The stereograph represented a young man in 18th-century costume on a bed. The backdrop was painted, but the chest, discarded coat and candle were real. Stereographic techniques of arranging real figures in compositions that were at once carefully composed and naturally spontaneous were particularly pertinent to Pre-Raphaelite painters, who observed and used friends and acquaintances as models in inventive and expressive new poses.

They interact casually around a card table, and one regards us directly, but they are at the same time artfully positioned equally close the picture plane. This created a natural effect while keeping them the same length from the camera to avoid the distortions that a lens gives to near objects at different distances. He might have incorporated its informal effect to challenge accusations that had recently appeared in the press that he could not represent modern beauties in contemporary fashion.

Presented by the Trustees of the Chantrey Bequest In its style, which recalls the works of the eighteenth-century painter Sir Joshua Reynolds, and in its flattering depiction of the fashionable sitters, this picture expresses a gentle and nostalgic vision of family life. Mary holds most of the trumps and looks towards the viewer. Delicately, the card game hints at sisterly competition in husband-finding. William Powell Frith Dolly Varden c. Bequeathed by Mrs E.

Thwaites Its action is set in the London of the s. The problems and possibilities of realism were fundamental to 19th-century science and literature as well as the arts. It underpinned the dialogue between painters and stereographers. Even painted subjects from history and literature represented by stereographers appear to have been chosen for their familiar, everyday aspects.

It drew on the popularity of the author and book, and was intended to reach a similarly broad audience in the form of engraved prints. William Collins Happy as a King replica c. Presented by Robert Vernon This is the first display in a major British art gallery devoted to the nineteenth-century craze of three-dimensional photography, known as stereographs, and open up this neglected area of British art.

In the s and s pioneer photographers staged real men, women and children in tableaux based on famous paintings of the day, in order to bring them to life as three-dimensional scenes. Stereographs comprise two photographs of the same scene taken from fractionally different viewpoints. When these are mounted side by side and viewed through a stereoscope, the viewer sees just one three-dimensional image.

Stereographs were inexpensive, and in the s and s they circulated world-wide in their tens of thousands. The photographs were regarded by many as fairly disposable, making them hard to track down today. The display introduces important figures in stereoscopic photography such as Alexis Gaudin and Michael Burr, and shows how some of their innovations also inspired painters. In this unique display they can be viewed in their full 3-D splendour alongside the beautiful Victorian narrative paintings to which they relate.

We are delighted to be collaborating with Dr Brian May, who has built this collection over 40 years, and with Denis Pellerin, who has researched the connections. Presented by Sir Henry Tate A woman carrying a sleeping child comforts her wounded husband, a defeated rebel, while handing an order for his release to a gaoler.

Shortly afterwards, Gaudin made a stereograph, the rare surviving examples of which bear no title, which posed a young woman, child and two men in the same attitudes Untitled, after Millais, The Order of Release , c. His image combined a backdrop painted in the conventional way behind the figures with real furniture and a door jutting out in front. Such round and rectangular geometric objects became common in stereographs because they created clear three-dimensional shapes.

Like Millais, Gaudin used real models. They express the sternness, despair and stoicism of the gaoler, soldier and wife. The dog is probably an example of taxidermy as a real one is unlikely to have stayed still while the photograph, which would have been exposed over several seconds, was taken.

Unlike painting, stereographs exclude things outside the frame. When the eyes come close to the stereoscope lenses and manage to bring the image into focus they experience the sudden sensation of being in the picture. Even the tiny scale of the scenes imitates the scale at which distant objects are experienced in life to get a sense of this, look at a person on the other side of the room and holding your hand near your eye line up your forefinger with their head and your thumb with their feet.

The painter created an enclosed feeling for the viewer with a claustrophobic shadowy shallow space. Stereography was a new art. Bequeathed by Jacob Bell When The Derby Day was first exhibited at the Royal Academy in , it proved so popular that a rail had to be put up to keep back the crowds. It presents a panorama of modern Victorian life, a previously unknown genre which Frith largely created in his earlier work, Life at the Seaside, Ramsgate Sands of Royal Collection.

He worked on the project for fifteen months, producing two large sketches in addition to the finished work. He brought the composition together with the aid of drawings and sketches, hiring models to pose for all the main figures. He asked a real jockey called Bundy to pose on a hobbyhorse in his studio for the riders on the right of the picture, and also hired an acrobat and his son, whom he saw performing in a pantomime in Drury Lane.

For the remaining figures he called on family and friends, as well as a string of young women sent by Jacob Bell. Despite a remarkable feat of organisation, the picture remains fairly static, and the figures are more interesting when examined individually. There are three main incidents taking place in the picture. He is tempting the rustic-looking man in a smock, whose wife is trying to restrain him. On the right of this group, another man, with his hands in his pockets, has had his gold watch stolen by the man behind.

In the centre of the picture we see the acrobat and his son, who looks longingly over at a sumptuous picnic being laid out by a footman. Behind them are carriages filled with race-goers, including a courtesan on the far right, who is the kept mistress of the foppish-looking character leaning against the carriage. The courtesan is balanced on the far left of the picture by the woman in a dark riding habit, one of a number of high-class prostitutes who daily paraded on horseback in Hyde Park.

The relationship between photography and painting went two ways. In the mid s, Frith began to use photographs to help him paint elaborate and up-to-date scenes on a very large scale. It caused a sensation. This narrative momentum was complemented by motion within the pictures. Further movement is contributed by the people. In each, Silvester orchestrated incessant activity in poses which betray no hint that they were held for several seconds. Her child and others look on while an older gentleman whose covered nose suggests he may be suffering from syphilis shows his disapproval.

Bequeathed by Miss J. Blaker The painting of modern-life subjects was popularised during the s by such artists as William Frith Artists deliberately chose subjects such as racetracks, seaside resorts and busy streets where all classes of society could be represented in the one picture. The omnibus — a horse-drawn carriage that picked up and deposited people along an established route — was introduced into London on 4 July and quickly became a popular mode of transport.

Purgini in Victorian Days and Ways , London Egley painted the scene as if glimpsed through a window and attempted to convey the claustrophobic and cramped conditions that the passengers were forced to endure. The subject permitted him to portray every class of society, from an old country woman, perhaps a family servant, with her piles of baggage, to the city clerk with his cane.

The old woman stares sympathetically towards the young mother and her children, who avert their gazes, in a gesture of gentility. Similarly, a series by James Elliott ? Lot numbers have been attached to the furniture and in the background a servant, who has also lost her home, weeps.

Martineau adopted a photographic composition, figures enclosed within a room cluttered with clues to both narrative and depth. A stereograph-style view into another space shows men assessing possessions. Lot numbers are attached to the furniture. Another horse image suggests gambling. Presented by E. Martineau Tate Britain website. A bumper posting on a fascinating subject. People stare into the camera with no idea of the maelstrom about to descend….

Many thankx to Foam for allowing me to publish the text and photographs in the posting. The title refers to the primrose flower, used metaphorically here to represent the many colours in which it appears during early spring. Primrose — Russian Colour Photography presents a retrospective of the various attempts in Russia to produce coloured photographic images.

This process began in the early s, almost simultaneously with the discovery of the new medium itself. The use of colour in Russia stems from the early s and practically coincides with the invention of the medium itself. The term colour photography is slightly disingenuous, since at first it referred to a toning technique in which black and white photographs were painted by hand. Traditionally this technique was used by specialised tradesmen who added colour to the photographs according to certain methods and within the contours of the image.

This technique became so popular that it started a trend in and of itself and to a large extent determined the appearance and aesthetics of colour photography in Russia. Initially used especially for portraits, Pictorialist landscapes and nudes, it later also found favour with avant-garde artists. Interestingly enough these aesthetics also formed the starting point for Soviet propaganda and for portraits, political leaders and reportage.

Primrose — Russian Colour Photography can be viewed as a journey through various techniques and genres, meanings and messages, mass practices and individual experiments. But is also shows unique photos of Alexander Rodchenko and Varvara Stephanova, and recent works from the famous Luriki series by Boris Mikhailov, in which he mocked the visual culture of the Soviet propaganda. Rodchenko — V.

This exhibition with the metaphorical title Primrose demonstrates the appearance and development of colour in Russian photography from the s to s, and at the same time reveals the history of Russia in photography. With examples of works from classics of Russian photography such as P. Pavlov, K. Bergamasko, A.

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